SAKRAMEN KRISMA (PENGUATAN)
Sakramen Krisma adalah salah satu dari tiga sakramen inisiasi Kristen yaitu Baptis, Krisma dan Ekaristi. Sakramen Krisma memiliki dasar Kitab Suci dari Kis 8:16-17 “Sebab Roh Kudus belum turun di atas seorangpun di antara mereka, karena mereka hanya dibaptis dalam nama Tuhan Yesus. Kemudian keduanya menumpangkan tangan di atas mereka, lalu mereka menerima Roh Kudus.” dan dari Kis 19:5-6 “Ketika mereka mendengar hal itu, mereka memberi diri mereka dibaptis dalam nama Tuhan Yesus. Dan ketika Paulus menumpangkan tangan di atas mereka, turunlah Roh Kudus ke atas mereka, dan mulailah mereka berkata-kata dalam bahasa roh dan bernubuat”. dari kedua kutipan ini jelas bahwa Sakramen Krisma membutuhkan penumpangan tangan untuk mengundang Roh Kudus.
Didalam sakramen Krisma, kita menerima “Kepenuhan Roh Kudus” sehingga kita dapat secara penuh dan aktif berkarya dalam Gereja. bandingkan dengan para rasul yang menerima Roh Kudus saat Pantekosta, sebelum peristiwa Pantekosta mereka sudah menerima Roh Kudus (lihat Yoh 20:22) tetapi mereka baru ‘aktif’ sesudah Pantekosta. Demikian juga halnya dengan kita karena sebenarnya Roh Kuduspun sudah kita terima saat Permandian, yaitu Roh yang menjadikan kita Anak-Anak Allah, dan yang membersihkan kita dari Dosa Asal (lebih Jelasnya lihat tentang Sakramen Babtis). Itulah disebutkan bahwa Sakramen Babtis adalah Sakramen Paskah dan Sakramen Krisma adalah Sakramen Pantekosta.
Dalam Sakramen Krisma juga ada Pengurapan dengan minyak Krisma yang berarti kita yang sudah menerima Krisma Dikuduskan, Dikhususkan, dan menerima Kuasa untuk melakukan tugas perutusan kita sebagai umat beriman (bdk 1 Samuel 10:1;1Samuel 16:13; 1 Raj 1:39). Dengan menerima Sakramen Krisma, kita menerima Roh Kudus yang merupakan meterai, Tanda bahwa kita ini milik Allah.
Berikut ini Kesaksian Bapa Gereja dan Para Kudus tentang Sakramen Krisma:
- “Melalui Krisma orang dikuatkan sebagai pejuang Kristus” (St. Bonaventura)
- Theophilus of Antioch: “Are you unwilling to be anointed with the oil of God? It is on this account that we are called Christians: because we are anointed with the oil of God” (To Autolycus 1:12 [A.D. 181]).
- Tertullian: “After coming from the place of washing we are thoroughly anointed with a blessed unction, from the ancient discipline by which [those] in the priesthood . . . were accustomed to be anointed with a horn of oil, ever since Aaron was anointed by Moses. . . . So also with us, the unction runs on the body and profits us spiritually, in the same way that baptism itself is a corporal act by which we are plunged in water, while its effect is spiritual, in that we are freed from sins. After this, the hand is imposed for a blessing, invoking and inviting the Holy Spirit” (Baptism 7:1)
- Tertullian: “No soul whatever is able to obtain salvation unless it has believed while it was in the flesh. Indeed, the flesh is the hinge of salvation . . . The flesh, then, is washed [baptism] so that the soul may be made clean. The flesh is anointed so that the soul may be dedicated to holiness. The flesh is signed so that the soul may be fortified. The flesh is shaded by the imposition of hands [confirmation] so that the soul may be illuminated by the Spirit. The flesh feeds on the body and blood of Christ [the Eucharist] so that the soul too may feed on God. They cannot, then, be separated in their reward, when they are united in their works” (The Resurrection of the Dead 8:2)
- Hippolytus: “The bishop, imposing his hand on them, shall make an invocation, saying, ‘O Lord God, who made them worthy of the remission of sins through the Holy Spirit’s washing unto rebirth, send into them your grace so that they may serve you according to your will, for there is glory to you, to the Father and the Son with the Holy Spirit, in the holy Church, both now and through the ages of ages. Amen.’ Then, pouring the consecrated oil into his hand and imposing it on the head of the baptized, he shall say, ‘I anoint you with holy oil in the Lord, the Father Almighty, and Christ Jesus and the Holy Spirit.’ Signing them on the forehead, he shall kiss them and say, ‘The Lord be with you.’ He that has been signed shall say, ‘And with your spirit.’ Thus shall he do to each” (The Apostolic Tradition 21)
- Cyprian of Carthage: “It is necessary for him that has been baptized also to be anointed, so that by his having received chrism, that is, the anointing, he can be the anointed of God and have in him the grace of Christ” (Letters 7:2 [A.D. 253]). ; “Some say in regard to those who were baptized in Samaria that when the apostles Peter and John came there only hands were imposed on them so that they might receive the Holy Spirit, and that they were not re-baptized. But we see, dearest brother, that this situation in no way pertains to the present case. Those in Samaria who had believed had believed in the true faith, and it was by the deacon Philip, whom those same apostles had sent there, that they had been baptized inside–in the Church. . . . Since, then, they had already received a legitimate and ecclesiastical baptism, it was not necessary to baptize them again. Rather, that only which was lacking was done by Peter and John. The prayer having been made over them and hands having been imposed upon them, the Holy Spirit was invoked and was poured out upon them. This is even now the practice among us, so that those who are baptized in the Church then are brought to the prelates of the Church; through our prayer and the imposition of hands, they receive the Holy Spirit and are perfected with the seal of the Lord” (ibid. 73:9) ; “[A]re not hands, in the name of the same Christ, laid upon the baptized persons among them, for the reception of the Holy Spirit?” (ibid., 74:5) ; “[O]ne is not born by the imposition of hands when he receives the Holy Ghost, but in baptism, that so, being already born, he may receive the Holy Spirit, even as it happened in the first man Adam. For first God formed him, and then breathed into his nostrils the breath of life. For the Spirit cannot be received, unless he who receives first have an existence. But . . . the birth of Christians is in baptism” (ibid., 74:7)
- Council of Carthage VII: “[I]n the Gospel our Lord Jesus Christ spoke with His divine voice, saying, ‘Except a man be born again of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God’ [John 3:5]. This is the Spirit which from the beginning was borne over the waters; for neither can the Spirit operate without the water, nor the water without the Spirit. Certain people therefore interpret [this passage] for themselves wrongly, when they say that by imposition of the hand they receive the Holy Ghost, and are thus received, when it is manifest that they ought to be born again [initiated] in the Catholic Church by both sacraments” (VII Carthage [A.D. 256])
- Treatise on Re-Baptism: “[I]t has been asked among the brethren what course ought specially to be adopted towards the persons of those who . . . baptized in heresy . . . and subsequently departing from their heresy, and fleeing as supplicants to the Church of God, should repent with their whole hearts, and only now perceiving the condemnation of their error, implore from the Church the help of salvation. . . . [A]ccording to the most ancient custom and ecclesiastical tradition, it would suffice, after that baptism which they have received outside the Church . . . that only hands should be laid upon them by the bishop for their reception of the Holy Spirit, and this imposition of hands would afford them the renewed and perfected seal of faith” (Treatise on Re-Baptism 1 [A.D. 256])
- Pacian of Barcelona: “If, then, the power of both baptism and confirmation, greater by far than charisms, is passed on to the bishops, so too is the right of binding and loosing” (Three Letters to the Novatianist Sympronian 1:6 [A.D. 383])
Dengan menerima Krisma berarti berarti kita dinilai sudah dewasa dalam Iman, dilantik menjadi saksi Iman dan terlibat penuh dalam Gereja. (Thomas Rudy)